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## YYMMDD ext Source Title and Notes (if any) *Title from filename
1 ------ htm (see webpage) A chimeric photoreceptor gene, NEOCHROME, has arisen twice during plant evolution -- Suetsugu et al. 102 (38): 1370
  1. Published online before print September 8, 2005, 10.1073/pnas.0504734102
  2. From The Cover
  4. A chimeric photoreceptor gene, NEOCHROME, has arisen twice during plant evolution
  5. Noriyuki Suetsugu *, Franz Mittmann , Gottfried Wagner , Jon Hughes , and Masamitsu Wada *, , 
  6. Although most plant species from algae to flowering plants use blue light for inducing phototropism and chloroplast movement, many ferns, some mosses, and green algae use red as well as blue light for the regulation of these responses, resulting in better sensitivity at low light levels.
  7. evolution
  8. ferns
  9. However, the fern and algal genes seem to have arisen independently in evolution, thus providing an intriguing example of convergent evolution.
  10. evolution
  11. ferns
  12. ferns
  13. evolution
  14. evolution
  15. View larger version
  16. Fig. 1.
  17. View this table:
  18. Table 1.
  19. ferns
  20. ferns
  21. View larger version
  22. Fig. 2.
  23. evolution
  24. View larger version
  25. Fig. 3.
  26. View larger version
  27. Fig. 4.
  28. ferns
  29. ferns
  30. ferns
  31. This article has been cited by other articles in HighWire Press-hosted journals:
2 ------ htm (see webpage) The Carboniferous [Upload 080530]
  1. The Carboniferous Period occurred from about 354 to 290 million years ago during the late Paleozoic Era.
  2. The term "Carboniferous" is used throughout the world to describe this period, although this period has been separated into the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) and the Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) in the United States
  3. term "Carboniferous", or "carbon-bearing"
  4. an increase in the number of tree ferns
  5. Godwanaland (present-day Africa and South America)
  6. Plant material did not decay when the seas covered them and pressure and heat eventually built up over the millions of years to transform the plant material to coal.
3 ------ htm (see webpage) No
  1. The appearance or disappearance of fauna usually marks the boundaries between time periods.
  2. Coal beds, which can be up to eleven to twelve meters thick, characterize the Upper Carboniferous.
  3. The forests of seedless vascular plants that existed in the tropical swamp forests of Europe and North America provided the organic material that became coal
  4. Index fossils are the remains of plants and animals that characterize a well-defined time span and occur over a wide range of geography
  5. coal forests
  6. The Carboniferous was marked by the progressive formation of the supercontinent Pangea
  7. Laurasia
  8. Gondwana
  9. Great coal-forming forests developed as a result of rare freezing temperatures and a warm, humid climate. In the closed swamps, accumulating layers of decaying plant matter produced numerous layers of coal.
  10. One of the greatest evolutionary innovations of the Carboniferous was the amniote egg, which allowed for the further exploitation of the land by certain tetrapods. The amniote egg allowed the ancestors of birds, mammals, and reptiles to reproduce on land by preventing the desiccation of the embryo inside.
  11. Scale trees (lepidodendrons) grew to 35 meters (115 feet) forming dense forests
  12. Entire content Copyright © 1998-2006 ADR & Associates
    Abiding Dave's Science World at
    All rights reserved. Protected by the copyright laws of
    the United States and International Treaties.
4 ------ htm (see webpage) Climate during the Carboniferous Period
  1. The hot and humid climate of the Middle Carboniferous Period was accompanied by an explosion of terrestrial plant life.
  2. 100 or so coal seams which today comprise the Great Bituminous Coalfields of the Eastern U.S. and Western Europe.
  3. The explosion of luxuriant plant growth and coal bed formation that occurred 286 - 360 million years ago is the reason for the name, "Carboniferous Period."
  4. Similarly, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Early Carboniferous Period were approximately 1500 ppm (parts per million), but by the Middle Carboniferous had declined to about 350 ppm -- comparable to average CO2 concentrations today!
  5. Earth's atmosphere today contains about 370 ppm CO2 (0.037%).
  6. Late Carboniferous to Early Permian time (315 mya -- 270 mya) is the only time period in the last 600 million years when both atmospheric CO2 and temperatures were as low as they are today (Quaternary Period )
  7. There has historically been much more CO2 in our atmosphere than exists today. For example, during the Jurassic Period (200 mya), average CO2 concentrations were about 1800 ppm or about 4.8 times higher than today. The highest concentrations of CO2 during all of the Paleozoic Era occurred during the Cambrian Period, nearly 7000 ppm -- about 19 times higher than today.
  8. The Carboniferous Period and the Ordovician Period were the only geological periods during the Paleozoic Era when global temperatures were as low as they are today. To the consternation of global warming proponents, the Late Ordovician Period was also an Ice Age while at the same time CO2 concentrations then were nearly 12 times higher than today-- 4400 ppm. According to greenhouse theory, Earth should have been exceedingly hot. Instead, global temperatures were no warmer than today. Clearly, other factors besides atmospheric carbon influence earth temperatures and global warming.
  9. Two special conditions of terrestrial landmass distribution, when they exist concurrently, appear as a sort of common denominator for the occurrence of very long-term simultaneous declines in both global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2):
  10. 1) the existence of a continuous continental landmass stretching from pole to pole, restricting free circulation of polar and tropical waters, and
  11. 2) the existence of a large (south) polar landmass capable of supporting thick glacial ice accumulations.
  13. These special conditions existed during the Carboniferous Period, as they do today in our present Quaternary Period.
  14. We are actually in an ice age climate today. However for the last 10,000 years or so we have enjoyed a warm but temporary interglacial vacation. We know from geological records like ocean sediments and ice cores from permanent glaciers that for at least the last 750,000 years interglacial periods happen at 100,000 year intervals, lasting about 15,000 to 20,000 years before returning to an icehouse climate. We are currently about 18,000 years into Earth's present interglacial cycle. These cycles have been occurring for at least the last 2-4 million years, although the Earth has been cooling gradually for the last 30 million years.
5 ------ htm (see webpage) Carboniferous period. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
  1. The plant life of the Carboniferous period was extensive and luxuriant
  2. more than 800 kinds of cockroaches
6 ------ htm (see webpage) Earth's First 3.7 Billion Years: Lecture 7
  1. The two essential elements of Life are that the system needs to be able to replicate and it needs to be separated from its surroundings.
  2. Evidently, photosynthesis must have started nearly at the beginning. At once that changed the world because of the release of free oxygen.
  3. Eukaryotic cells are symbiotic colonies of prokaryotes; many of the symbionts are called organelles. O2 is handled by Mitochondria, chloroplasts handle photosynthesis. These organelles independently replicate with their own genome DNA sequences in circular strands, as in bacteria.
  4. During the peak of land plant spread, in the Late Carboniferous (300 million years ago), the world plunged into a long glacial age, almost certainly due to plant-mediated weathering.
  5. The end of the Permian saw the greatest mass extinction of all time.
  6. Raup has estimated that perhaps 99% of all species went extinct.
  7. The origin of this mass extinction is unknown, however, there is speculation that massive amounts of CO2 and sulfuric acid released by the massive volcanism that produced the Siberian Traps (basalts) may have contributed by causing sever climatic disruption.
7 ------ htm (see webpage) Evolution of Plants [Upload 080530]
  1. Like animals, the steps most pertinant to the invasion of land appear to have involved the evolution of desiccation resistance.
  2. Kinds of plants:
  3. Based on the presence of these various, sophisticated adaptations, plants may be categorized as follows:
  4. nonvascular plants versus vascular plants
  5. vascular non-seed bearing and vascular seed bearing
  6. seed bearing non-flowering and seed bearing flowering
  7. The most advanced plants are considered to be the flowering vascular plants while the most primitive plants are considered to be the nonvascular plants.
  8. There exists approximately 275,000 individual species of flowering plant out of about 325,000 species of plants. Clearly, especially given their tendency toward extremely macroscopic bodies, flowering plants are the dominant terrestrial producers.
8 ------ htm (see webpage) Patterns of segregation and convergence in the evolution of fern and seed plant leaf morphologies Paleobiology
  1. the separation of vegetative and reproductive roles into distinct organs in later seed plant groups may have allowed greater functional specialization-and thereby morphological simplification-as the seed plants came to be dominated by groups originating in more arid environments
  2. During the Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous, at least four vascular plant line-ages (seed plants, progymnosperms, ferns, and sphenopsids) independently evolved laminate leaves and followed the same early sequence of morphological evolution
9 ------ htm (see webpage) Carboniferous period: Historical Geology of the Period
  1. Carboniferous is often split into two divisions, the Mississippian and the Pennsylvanian
10 ------ htm (see webpage) Mountains formed by plate convergence
  1. Although this ancient mountain range has been subsequently reduced to nothing by the forces of wind and rain, it's height and extent are believed to have equaled or exceeded the Himalayas of today
  2. By 250 million years ago all the continental landmasses on earth had converged to form the single supercontinent Pangea. About 213 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, Pangea began breaking apart and the continents began to reassemble themselves into new landmasses which comprise the continents we have today
## YYMMDD ext Source Title and Notes (if any) *Title from filename
11 ------ htm (see webpage) Moving Continents: Images of Continental Drift
  1. The phenomena is known as continental drift and the process has been going on for hundreds of millions of years-- at rates measured in only a few centimeters per year.
12 ------ htm (see webpage) The Paleozoic Era
  1. The Paleozoic is bracketed by two of the most important events in the history of animal life. At its beginning, multicelled animals underwent a dramatic "explosion" in diversity, and almost all living animal phyla appeared within a few millions of years
  2. At the other end of the Paleozoic, the largest mass extinction in history wiped out approximately 90% of all marine animal species
13 ------ htm (see webpage) Permian HSU NHM
  1. Plate Tectonic Reconstructions

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