Bibliography: Chronological Sort for\GlobalDying\FalseHopes\

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U S Grain Biofuel1980-2010
3 070422 htm
WashPost Saving the Earth: The Biodiesel Bus Blog
  1. Singer Sheryl Crow and environmentalist have been traveling across on a two-week Stop Global Warming College Tour
4 080208 htm NYT Biofuels Deemed a Greenhouse Threat
  1. Almost all biofuels used today cause more greenhouse gas emissions than conventional fuels if the full emissions costs of producing these “green” fuels are taken into account
  2. More important, they discovered that, taken globally, the production of almost all biofuels resulted, directly or indirectly, intentionally or not, in new lands being cleared, either for food or fuel.
  3. But even that equation proved overly simplistic because the process of turning plants into fuels causes its own emissions — for refining and transport, for example
  4. The clearance of grassland releases 93 times the amount of greenhouse gas that would be saved by the fuel made annually on that land
  5. “So for the next 93 years you’re making worse, just at the time when we need to be bringing down carbon emissions.”
  6. Previously, Midwestern farmers had alternated corn with soy in their fields, one year to the next. Now many grow only corn, meaning that soy has to be grown elsewhere.
  7. “Brazilian farmers are planting more of the world’s soybeans — and they’re deforesting the Amazon to do it,
5 080429 htm
WashPost Siphoning Off Corn to Fuel Our Cars
  1. As farmers feed ethanol plants, a costly link is forged between food and oil
  2. [Akin to Bond and Loan interest rates.--RSB]
  3. Across the country, ethanol plants are swallowing more and more of the nation's corn crop
  4. "We used to have a grain economy and a fuel economy. But now they're beginning to fuse."
  5. On Monday, Tyson Foods reported its first loss in six quarters and said that its corn and soybean costs would increase by $600 million this year.
6 080530 htm CNN Biofuels: What do the experts think?
  1. By backing false-solutions we stall investment from the true renewable energies such as wind, solar, wave and geothermal and ignore our responsibility to prevent crossing key climate tipping points, beyond which our current civilization and even much of life on earth could not sustain itself
7 080622 htm
Reuters U.S. biofuel plants go bankrupt on feedstock costs |
  1. "Corn prices are making the feasibility of ethanol plants every day more and more questionable,"
8 080629 htm NYT Can Weeds Help Solve the Climate Crisis? - Global Warming
  1. The effect that boosting this gas’s concentration in the atmosphere will have on plants is very poorly understood.
  2. When he checked, he found that in fact the temperatures in Baltimore run 3 to 4 degrees Fahrenheit warmer on average than those of the surrounding countryside, and the concentration of CO2 in the local atmosphere (440 to 450 p.p.m., or parts per million by volume) is well above the current global average.
  3. Not only did the weeds grow much larger in hotter, CO2-enriched plots — a weed called lambs-quarters, or Chenopodium album, grew to an impressive 6 to 8 feet on the farm but to a frightening 10 to 12 feet in the city — but the urban, futuristic weeds also produced more pollen
  4. Even more alarming was the way that the increased heat and CO2 accelerated and perverted the succession of species within the plots. Typically, a cleared area in the Eastern United States, if left to itself, returns to native woodland. This process varies with the site and circumstances, but in its archetypical form fast-growing annual weeds cover the soil first, playing the role of what ecologists classify as “pioneer plants.”
  5. But what Ziska observed in his urban plots was ecology on amphetamines, a nearly completed succession to trees by the end of five years, with a domination by invasive weed trees of the most troublesome sort: ailanthus, Norway maples and mulberries. Five years after the creation of the plots, the biggest ailanthus in the rural test site measured about five feet tall. The city site boasted a 20-footer.
  6. Weeds already cost U.S. farmers about 12 percent of their harvest, exacting an estimated annual loss of $33 billion.
  7. supercharged weeds?
  8. consider how many “noxious weeds” — plants now marked for destruction by federal, state or county authorities — were deliberately introduced into North America by individuals convinced of their beauty or utilit
  9. The transformation of an east Asian wild grass (red rice) into the crop that provides 20 percent of humanity’s caloric intake is extraordinary.
  10. He found in a series of trials that populations of the familiar weed evolve, changing physically to take advantage of this sort of resource enhancement, within the space of one growing season.
  11. What he and his colleagues have found, he said, is that weeds benefit far more than crop plants from the changes in CO2 and that the implications of this for agriculture and public health are grave.
  12. Tests with common agricultural weeds like Canada thistle and quack grass found them more resistant to herbicides when grown in higher concentrations of CO2, making them harder to control.
  13. it also changes their chemical composition
  14. produced twice as much pollen as plants
  15. Poison ivy has also demonstrated not only more vigorous growth at higher levels of CO2 but also a more virulent form of urushiol, the oil in its tissue that provokes a ras
  16. While cheatgrass can tolerate such frequent burns, the native flora cannot.
  17. Wake pointed out that local archaeology can’t change the global data set, which proves that the level of CO2 in the atmosphere is at its highest point in more than 650,000 years and that the rate of increase is accelerating.
  18. If these projections prove accurate, Kentucky, by the end of the next one to three decades, should have a climate (and weed flora) resembling that of present-day North Carolina; by century’s end, it will have shifted to a regime more like that of Louisiana. Delaware, over the same period, will be transformed to something first like North Carolina and then Georgia, while Pennsylvania will metamorphose into West Virginia and then North Carolina. Florida will become something unprecedented in this country. Field observations indicate that these transformations are already under way: another speaker pointed out that kudzu, “the weed that ate the South,” has already migrated up to central Illinois and by 2015 could be extending its tendrils into Michigan’s Upper Peninsula.
  19. Can the forest adapt so drastically in a space of just decades?
  20. Kudzu, for instance: Ziska has been seeking financing to study its potential as a source of biofuel. Kudzu roots, as much as 50 percent starch by weight, seem ideal for ethanol production, while the plant’s supercharged vines, which can grow a foot a day, would be an abundant source of alternative energy. This would be win-win: we develop an alternative to fossil fuels and, at the same time, create a financial incentive to root out a particularly troublesome weed.
  21. marijuana growers have an amazingly detailed knowledge of how CO2 enrichment affects their crop. But as Ziska points out, they don’t publish in scientific journals.
9 100101 htm
WashPost Bad year for biofuel ends on a dour note
  1. An alternative fuel for diesel engines is off to a shaky start this year though it emits fewer pollutants and cuts down on petroleum use because it's made from environmentally friendly waste and vegetable oil.
  2. A federal tax credit that provided makers of biodiesel $1 for every gallon
  3. The biodiesel industry is now operating at only 15 percent of its potential capacity
  4. There are close to 180 biodiesel plants operating in about 40 states.
  5. The country's largest biodiesel refinery, in Houston, sits idle
  6. For each of the 12,000 gallons of biodiesel that Francis produces each week, he has received a $1 tax credit to help keep operations going
  7. There is little chance that the U.S. will reach alternative fuel benchmarks of 36 billion gallons a year by 2022 in hopes of weaning the nation off foreign oil.
10 100204 htm
WashPost EPA biofuels guidelines could spur production of ethanol from corn
## YYMMDD ext Source Title and Notes (if any) *Title from filename
11 100223 htm
WashPost Secretive fuel-cell startup stirring hopes, doubts
  1. a huge box of fuel cells that it hopes will allow homes and businesses to generate their own electricity.
  2. [A Segway solution--RSB]
  3. Large technology companies could attach them to their computing centers, which can be energy hogs.
  4. Instead of only being able to use hydrogen, Bloom Energy cells can use wind, solar power and whatever else is available, which could vary from community to community
12 100301 htm
TheTimes Green fuels cause more harm than fossil fuels, according to report
  1. it takes 840 years for a palm oil plantation to soak up the carbon emitted when rainforest is burnt
  2. Using fossil fuel in vehicles is better for the environment than so-called green fuels made from crops
  3. The findings show that the Department for Transport’s target for raising the level of biofuel in all fuel sold in Britain will result in millions of acres of forest being logged or burnt down and converted to plantations
  4. palm oil increases emissions by 31 per cent because of the carbon released when forest and grassland is turned into plantations. Rape seed and soy
  5. Clearing rainforest for biofuel plantations releases carbon stored in trees and soil. It takes up to 840 years for a palm oil plantation to soak up the carbon emitted when the rainforest it replaced was burnt. The expansion of the palm oil industry in Indonesia has turned it into the third-largest CO2 emitter, after China and the US

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