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## YYMMDD ext Source Title and Notes (if any) *Title from filename
1 ------ htm (see webpage) Saudi Arabia DOE document on gas flaring [Uploaded 071111
  1. With one-fourth of the world's proven oil reserves, Saudi Arabia
  2. Saudi Arabia supplied the United States with 1.5 million barrels per day of crude oil, or 16%, of U.S. crude oil imports
  3. 90-95% of total Saudi export earnings
  4. Over the past two decades or so, Saudi economic growth has fallen far behind population growth, resulting in sharply reduced per capita incomes and higher unemployment
  5. Saudi Arabia also has a high level of domestic debt (around 75% of GDP)
  6. Saudi Arabia also has a policy known as "Saudiisation," the goal of which is to increase employment of its own citizens by replacing 60% of the estimated 7.2 million foreign workers in the country
  7. Saudi Arabia has about 77 oil and gas field
  8. over half of its oil reserves are contained in only eight fields, including Ghawar (the world's largest onshore oil field, with estimated remaining reserves of 70 billion barrels) and Safaniya (the world's largest offshore field, with estimated reserves of 19 billion barrels)
  9. Most of Saudi Arabia's crude oil is exported via the Arabian Gulf through the Abqaiq processing facility.
  10. Saudi Arabia's primary oil export terminals are located at Ras Tanura (5 million bbl/d capacity) and Juaymah (3 million bbl/d) on the Arabian Gulf, plus Yanbu (3 million bbl/d) on the Red Sea.
  11. Saudi Arabia operates two major oil pipelines. The 4.8-million bbl/d capacity East-West Crude Oil Pipeline (Petroline) is used mainly to transport Arabian Light and Super Light to refineries in the Western Province and to Red Sea terminals for export to European markets. Running parallel to the Petroline is the 270,000 bbl/d Abqaiq-Yanbu natural gas liquids pipeline, which serves Yanbu's petrochemical plants.
  12. Saudi Arabia's proven gas reserves are estimated at 204.5 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), ranking fifth in the world (after Russia, Iran, Qatar, and the UAE). Most (around 2/3) of Saudi Arabia's currently proven gas reserves consist of associated gas, mainly from the onshore Ghawar field and the offshore Safaniya and Zuluf fields.
  13. Domestic demand is driving a $4.5-billion expansion of Saudi Arabia's Master Gas System (MGS)
2 000308 htm Enn-com Catastrophic weather spells more misery for Africa
  1. While the people of Mozambique are deluged by floods, crops across the Horn of Africa have been shriveled by drought and forest fires are burning out of control in Ethiopia.
3 010411 htm East Africa Reels Under Worst Drought in Memory
  1. The worst drought in East Africa in living memory has created a desperate situation for millions of people, particularly in Kenya
  2. Government plans to clear over 10 percent of Kenya's forest to resettle landless people pose a serious threat to water resources
  3. Much of the country's irrigation, 90 percent of its domestic water supply and 70 percent of hydroelectric power depend on the water catchment areas that will be affected by the deforestation.
4 010603 htm NYT Saudi Pick Exxon Mobil Gas Projects
  1. Exxon Mobil will explore for and produce gas from any deposits beneath the southern area of the kingdom's Al Ghawar field, the world's largest oil field, the agency said. Shell will lead a $4 billion development of Shaybah in the Empty Quarter desert.
  2. The Ghawar project is the centerpiece of the kingdom's plan to allow foreign access to the world's fifth- largest natural gas reserves for the first time in more than two decades. Saudi Arabia wants to convert its oil- fed power industry to natural gas, spurring industrial developmen
5 010628 htm NYT Open Gas Fields To Foreigners
  1. Saudi Arabia radically reshaped its energy industry this month, opening potentially vast natural gas fields to foreign oil companies in an effort to jolt awake an economy that fails to provide enough jobs for the kingdom's booming population.
  2. In Saudi Arabia, where the 222 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves rank it fourth worldwide behind Russia, Iran and Qatar,
  3. Saudi Arabia uses about four billion cubic feet of gas a day
  4. By 2003, the country will be able to produce 7 billion feet daily, but that will still not be enough. Demand is expected to increase to 12 billion to 14 billion cubic feet of gas daily by 2025, meaning that unless there are major new discoveries, Saudi Arabia will use all its gas domestically.
  5. With no export potential
6 010715 htm CNN Drought Somalia1 M M
  1. The aging wells are drying up much faster than expected because of the severity of the drought and overcrowding
  2. Thousands of rural families had been forced to move from their homes in search of food and water
7 020219 htm
WSJ Delay Saudi Gas Projects
  1. [Reviewed]
8 020825 jpg NYT Fires Sci02082017-020825 N Y T
9 021116 htm
WashPost Swaziland Hunger
  1. [existential meltdown, inherited wealth, coflation, civil war, polygamy--RSB]
  2. Sowing Harvests Of Hunger In Africa
  3. Drought and Disease Fuel Famine in South
  4. In the lingo of foreign aid, millions of potential drought victims already have "diminished coping abilities."
10 030126 htm NYT Water Disappearing Saudi Arabia
  1. From the air, the circular wheat fields of this arid land's breadbasket look like forest-green poker chips strewn across the brown desert. But they are outnumbered by the ghostly silhouettes of fields left to fade back into the sand, places where the kingdom's gamble on agriculture has sucked precious aquifers dry.
  2. "I've had to lower my pumps 100 meters" — 328 feet — "in the past 10 years
  3. As the subterranean reservoirs run dry, his 4,000-foot-deep wells bring up water that is increasingly mineral-laden.
  4. Its only renewable water source is in shallow aquifers, 100 to 150 feet underground, which are replenished by brief, infrequent rainfalls.
  5. Wells dug deeper than 1,300 feet draw from ancient reserves trapped in layers of porous rock where the water is no more renewable than the country's oil.
  6. the country uses 6.34 trillion gallons of water a year for agriculture
  7. that only a third of that is replaced through rainfall. The rest simply disapp
  8. The Middle East and North Africa contain about 5 percent of the world's population but less than 1 percent of the world's fresh water
  9. Saudi Arabia is pumping from its eastern aquifers, leaving less water for neighboring Bahrain and Qatar. Jordan, meanwhile, has accused the Saudis of draining the Qa Disi Aquifer, which lies beneath the countries' border
  10. Economically, it will come to the point that extracting water is simply too expensive
  11. "Toilet water accounts for about 40 percent of the urban water consumed
## YYMMDD ext Source Title and Notes (if any) *Title from filename
11 031113 htm NewsDay Saudis Pray for Rain; Cleric Blames Sin
  1. Saudis on Thursday heeded their king's call and prayed for rainfall,
  2. "God afflicts people with drought and shortages of rain so that they can move closer to him with good deeds," the cleric said
12 070513 htm
USAToday Eastern U S10degrees Hotter
  1. Future eastern USA summers look much hotter than originally predicted with daily highs about 10 degrees warmer than in recent years by the mid-2080s, a new NASA study says.
13 970906 htm ArabicNews East African Droughts and Floods
  1. In Kenya, three rainy seasons in a row failed
  2. There was not enough water to grow crops or feed livestock. In towns and cities this year the price of maize meal, a staple food, doubled, and milk was so scarce that some mothers fought in shops to get enough for their children.
  3. Kenya's worst-hit areas were eastern, northeastern and coastal provinces.
  4. When the rains did come to Kenya, they came with a vengeance, thunderous through the nights, as water rushed through rural and urban areas.
  5. At first it was a welcome sound to Kenyans, but all too soon there were stories of terrible floods
  6. Droughts and floods are unusual in Kenya,

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